Single-phase motors are classified into single-phase split-phase motors or single-phase capacitor motors; the number of capacitors used in motors of different types is different.
A single-phase capacitive motor uses only one capacitor, which is called a "working capacitor." Whether starting or operating normally, it always starts both ends of the winding and the running winding coil. The motor of this structure is designed to use the capacitor and the start winding of the single-phase split-phase motor for long-term use in circuits. In fact, it became a two-phase asynchronous motor. Its operating performance, power factor, overload capability and efficiency are better than capacitive phase splitting. Since the capacitor does not have to be cut from the circuit during the operation of the motor, it does not require a centrifugal switch.
This single-phase motor has a very simple direction of changing the speed, and it is only necessary to adjust the two outlet ends of one of the two windings.
A single-phase split-phase motor requires two capacitors to start and operate; one capacitor is the start capacitor and the other is the running capacitor. The single-phase split-phase motor has a running winding and a starting winding embedded in the stator. The two windings are 90 degrees apart from each other on the stator and are connected to the same single-phase supply.
Since the single-phase power supply cannot produce a phase difference, it must take advantage of the leading-edge characteristic of the capacitor to give the motor a starting torque to generate a rotating magnetic field. When the rotor speed reaches 70%~80% of the rated motor speed after starting, a centrifugal switch installed inside the motor will automatically separate the starting capacitor from the starting winding. The normal operation is continued by the running winding and the running capacitor. This split-phase motor reverses the direction of travel by reversing the two line ends of any one of the two sets of coils.
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